Vijaygarh jyotish ray college

Affiliated Under University of Calcutta. Registered under 2f & 12B of UGC Act Under Graduate with Post Graduate Courses, Re-Accredited by NAAC (3rd Cycle) (Grade - A); Funded by RUSA; DBT-BOOST, Ranked in NIRF, AISHE

(ISO 9001:2015 Certified )

Students Corner


6th SEM



Answer the following questions (2 marks):

(a) What is ‘Scale bar’?

(b) Name two standard ‘reference styles’ used in scientific writing.

(c) Calculate the molarity of a 500 ml solution prepared with 20g of NaOH.  (d) What is secondary data?

(e) Differentiate between microtome and free-hand sectioning.

 (f) What is cryofixation?

 (g) Name one fixative used for histological preparation. State the effect of fixation on plant chromosome staining with basic dyes.

(h) What are the main differences between light microscopic and electron microscopic images? .

 Answer the following questions (5 to 10 marks):

 (a) Describe with diagrams the procedure of serial dilution.

 (b) Write notes on : (i) Importance of documentation of observation (ii) Field photography.

(c) Mention different types of ‘authorship abuse’ in scientific writing. .

(f) What is chronic toxicity? Name one chronic neurotoxicant. State the general guidelines of the safe handling of chemicals in the laboratory.

 (g) Write short notes : (i) Maceration (ii) Plagiarism (iii) Field photography (iv) Micropipettes.

 (h) What are fluorochromes? Give an example. What is the significance of fluorochromes in karyotype study? Briefly explain the slide preparation method for the application of fluorochrome.

(i) State the differences between research method and research methodology. How conceptual research differs from emperical research? Write short discussion about literature survey.

(j) What is data? Enumerate different types of data. Explain different methods of graphical representation of data







Answer the following questions (2 marks):

a) Distinguish between agricultural and pastoral land.

b) What do you mean by bioprospecting?

c) Write the full form of IUCN. State one major objective of IUCN.

 d) Mention the important criteria for the progress in economic sustainability

. e) Distinguish between forest cover and tree cover

. f) What are the four Rs used as basic principle of solid waste management?

g) Define non-renewable resource. Give an example.

 h) What do you mean by environmental refugees?



Answer the following questions (5 marks):

(a) Write short notes on the importance of Agroforestry

 (b) What is EIA? Briefly state the importance of EIA on biodiversity conservation.

 (c) Write a brief account on application of GIS in natural resource management.



Answer the following questions (10 marks):

 (a) Briefly discuss the concept of sustainable utilisation of natural resources. Describe the management strategies for soil degradation.

(b) Define Biodiversity. State the significance and threats of Biodiversity. Enumerate briefly the National Biodiversity Action Plan of India

 (c) Comment on the forest types found in India. Mention the reasons for depletion of forest in India

(d) What are wetlands? Comment on the importance of wetlands. Enumerate the threats to wetlands. Name any two Ramsar sites in India.

(e) Distinguish between conventional and non-conventional source of energy. ‘Sun is the ultimate source of energy’. – Justify this statement.




BOTANY — HONOURS Paper : DSE-A-3 (Medicinal and Ethnobotany)

Answer the following questions (2 marks):

 (a) What is Pharmacopoeia? Give an example.

(b) What are unorganized drugs? Give one example.

 (c) Write one therapeutic use of Diosgenin and state the chemical nature of it.

 (d) What are curcuminoids? Name the source plant.

(e) What is ‘gutta-percha’?

(f) Give one example each from macrobotanical and microbotanical evidences of Paleoethnobotany.

(g) What do you mean by Unani system of medicine?

 (h) Why terpenes are referred to as isoprenoids?

Answer the following questions (5marks):

(a) Write a short note on principles and applications of Ayurveda system of medicine.

 (b) Write a brief note on the following: 2½+2½ (i) organoleptic evaluation (ii) biological evaluation.

 (c) What do you mean by polyherbal formulations? Cite an example of polyherbal formulation effective against a particular disease.

Answer the following questions (10 marks):

 (a) Explain with an example how quantitative microscopy is used in drug evaluation. Discuss the classification of drugs on the basis of chemical constitution and therapeutic effect. Cite a few merits and demerits based on these classifications

 (b) Mention the source plants, parts used, one therapeutic application and the chemical nature of the following drugs:

 (i) Atropine (ii) Catechin (iii) Solasodine (iv) Capsaicin (v) Gingerol.

 (c) Write the protective action of phenolics and terpenoids against pathogenic microbes and herbivores

(d) What do you mean by folk medicine? Write some remedies from natural sources for the treatment of

(i) jaundice (ii) infertility (iii) cardiac disorders.

(e) Give an outline of inter-relationship of basic primary and secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants. Distinguish between true alkaloids and proto-alkaloids with examples. Write the source and uses of vinblastin.








Answer the following questions (2 marks):

 (a) What is ‘biological clock’?

 (b) Name one naturally occurring cytokinin.

(c) What do you mean by ‘cavitation’ and ‘embolism’?

 (d) What do you mean by vernalization?

(e) Mention one symptom each caused by magnesium and boron deficiency in plants.

(f) Write two differences between apoplastic and symplastic loading mechanisms.

 (g) What is ‘Richmond Lang effect’?

(h) Write two differences between primary and secondary seed dormancy.


Answer the following questions (5 marks):

 (a) Write a short note on ‘P-protein’. Write one merit and one demerit of mass flow model of phloem transport mechanism in plants

(b) Write the role of ABA in senescence. 

(c) Describe the role of cryptochrome in photomorphogenesis. 


Answer the following questions (10marks):

 (a) Briefly describe the IAA mediated cell growth mechanism in plants. Write the importance of brassinolides in regulating plant growth

(b) Briefly describe the different strategies of breaking seed dormancy. How does GA and ABA ratio regulate seed germination in plants?

 (c) Write two differences between macronutrients and micronutrients. Write the importance of phosphate in plant nutrition. Briefly describe the different components of ‘Hogland solution’.

 (d) With illustrations describe the role of CO2 and blue light in opening and closing of stomata

(e) What is photoperiodism? Give an account of chemical nature of phytochrome. Discuss the role of phytochrome in photomorphogenesis.





Answer the following questions (2 marks):

 (a) Where does substrate level phosphorylation occur in glycolysis?

(b) What is ‘Quantasome’? Write the chemical formula of chlorophyll a.

 (c) What is ‘uncoupler’? Cite one example.

 (d) What is an ‘action spectrum’? (e) What is the function of ‘G protein’?

 (f) Write down the reaction catalysed by the enzyme ‘GOGAT’.

(g) Define isoenzyme with example. (h) How is triglyceride formed?

Answer the following questions (5marks):

 (a) Mention the biological significance of carotenoid pigments

. (b) Mention the biochemical reactions involved in the conversion of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA.

 (c) Write notes on allosteric regulation of enzymes with examples.

Answer the following questions (10 marks):

 (a) Why is the pentose phosphate pathway also called a shunt pathway? Schematically describe the pathway giving structures of substrates and products with the names of enzymes involved in each step.

(b) ‘Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in an ecophysiological adaptation of desert plants.’ Justify the statement with biochemical details. How do CAM plants differ from C4 plants?

(c) Discuss the role of Ca2+ as second messenger with reference to signal transduction pathway.

(d) Write down the biochemical reactions of β oxidation of fatty acids. Mention the stoichiometry of ATP production after complete oxidation of palmitic acid (C = 16).

(e) Describe the biochemistry of Nitrogen fixation with special reference to the role of Nitrogenase and leg-haemoglobin







5th SEM

BOTANY — HONOURS Paper : CC-11 (Cell and Molecular Biology)


Answer the following questions (2 marks):

a) State the central dogma of living organisms.

b) Comment on the importance of nuclear lamina. ?

 c) Why does DNA replication go from

 d) What are ribowitches? Give one example. (e) What happens when a cell reaches G0 stage?

f) Name one thermostable enzyme used for DNA amplification. Mention its source.

g) Is there a difference between oncogene and tumor suppressor gene?

h) Name the histone proteins associated with nucleosome.

i) What is endosymbiosis?

j)What is spliceosome?

k)Mention the role of ‘Ras’ gene in cancer

Answer the following questions (5marks):

a) Write a brief essay about application of PCR technology in biotechnology.

 (b) Discuss the role of telomerase in eukaryotic DNA replication and mention its importance.

(c) Enumerate the properties of genetic code mentioning the exceptions, if any.

 (d) How does the initiation of translation occur in prokaryotes?

e) State the events occur during the G1 – S and G2 – M checkpoints in yeast cell cycle.

f) Describe the role of MPF during cell-cycle progression.

g) What is an operon? Describe the structure of lac-operon.

h) Discuss with diagrams the negative control of lac-operon.

i) Describe briefly about the events that led to transition from RNA to DNA world.

j) How endosymbiotic theory helps to explain the origin of eukaryotic cell?

k) What are the structural differences between hnRNA and mRNA l)Describe the prerequisite condition for DNA replication in prokaryotes. ) m)What is cancer? Mention the different stages of cancer. What are the probable causes of cancer?






Answer the following questions (2 marks):

a) What is Handerson–Hasselbach equation?

 (b) “All co-enzymes are co-factors but all co-factors are not co-enzymes”— Explain with example.

(c) Differentiate between symport and antiport.

 (d) Give an example each of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. -helix? Name one non-essential amino acid.a

(e) What is the maximum number of amino acids in an 

(f) What is ‘Z-DNA’? What is its main difference with normal ‘B-DNA’?

 (g) What is redox-potential? What is its significance in biological system?


Answer the following questions (5-10 marks):

 (a) Distinguish between :

(i) Enantiomer and Epimer (ii) Phospholipid and Glycolipid.

 (b) Give a brief account of competitive and non-competitive inhibition of enzyme activity.

 (c) Write a short note on the significance of H - bond in biology.

 (d) Give a short account on the mechanism of active and passive ion uptake in plants.

(e) Write down the chemical structure of a Purine and a Pyrimidine nitrogenous base. Distinguish between ribonucleotide and deoxyribonucleotide. How nucleotides are joined together to form polynucleotide? Schematically represent an oligonucleotide chain.

(f) Distinguish between oxidative and photophosphorylation. In the light of chemiosmotic model describe the mechanism of ATP synthesis in chloroplasts.

(g) What is meant by steady state of enzyme action? How can Km value be determined with the help of an equation of straight line?

 (h) Explain with illustration how primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins are formed. How two amino acids are joined to form a polypeptide?

(i) (i) Discuss stereoisomerism in Carbohydrates. (ii) Explain numerical system of enzyme classification with examples






Answer the following questions (2 marks):

 (a) What is frequency distribution?

(b) Write two limitations of statistics.

(c) What do you mean by discrete variables?

 (d) Define primary data with example.

(e) Define null hypothesis with example.

 (f) Define statistical error. How it is different from mistake?

(g) What do you mean by ‘Population’ and ‘Sample’?

(h) Define cumulative frequency distribution and mention one of its use.

Answer the following questions (5-10marks):

a) What are the advantages of ‘Arithmatic mean’ and ‘mode value’?

(b) How does the standard deviation help for analysing the data in case of normal distribution? What is bimodal distribution?

(c) Five persons A, B, C, D, E occupy seats in a row at random. What is the probability that A and B sit next to each other?

 (d) Explain why the standard deviation is regarded as superior to other measures of dispersion. What is its chief defect? The grain length of a variety in rice is given below : Grain length in mm 9-11 12-14 15-17 18-20 No. of grains 3 5 9 3 Calculate the mean and standard error of grain length of the variety –

(f) What do you mean by Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium? Mention the factors affecting the equilibrium. In a study of a tribe from central Asia 26 Albino individuals are found in a total population of 6000. Albinism is recessive to normal skin colour. Calculate the expected allele frequencies and genotype frequencies if the population is in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. How many of tribal individuals are estimated to be carriers of the recessive albino allele?

(g) Define coefficient of variation. What are the special uses of this measure? Find the coefficient of variation from the following and comment on that. weight (gm) 110-119 120-129 130-139 140-149 150-159 160-169 170-179 180-189 Frequency 5 7 12 20 16 10 7 3 (d) Selfing of a hybrid plant, produced a population with 120 pink flowers and 88 white flowers. Explain cthe data with  2 analysis.

Find out the segregation ratio and test the goodness of fit. Comment on cthe nature of segregation. [ 2 table value is 3.84 for 1 degree of freedom at 0.05 probability level].

(h (i) Four cards are drawn consecutively four times from a pack of 52 cards. Find the chances of drawing an ace, a king, a queen and a jack. The cards are not replaced after each withdrawal. (ii) What is the probability of getting a king or a club from a pack of 52 cards? (iii) Define conditional probability


HONOURS Paper : DSE-A-2 (Industrial and Environmental Microbiology)


Answer the following questions (2 marks):

 (a) Name the different component of a continuously stirred bioreactor

 (b) Name one non-legume symbiotic association for nitrogen fixation.

(c) What is eutrophication?

 (d) Name one fecal and one non-fecal coliform bacteria in water sample.

(e) What are the industrial uses of enzymes amylase and lipase?

 (f) Note down the advantages of lyophilization.

(g) Explain the role of lichen as indicator organism.


Answer the following questions (5-10 marks):

.(a) Write short notes on  (a) Techniques involved in cell disruption

(b) Production of Ethyl alcohol

 (c) Bioremediation of metal-contaminated soil

 (d) What is biochemical oxygen demand and why is its reduction important in waste water treatment? How do primary and secondary waste water treatment methods differ?

(e) What is bioleaching? Comment on the bioleaching of a radioactive metal. Briefly describe the process of isolation of microorganisms from soil.

(f) Discuss the fermentation conditions and process of penicillin production. What are the industrial uses of immobilized Penicillin acylase?

(g) Name the different types of mycorrhizal association. Write a note on importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal association in plant root.

(h) (i) What are the roles of PSB and KSB in increasing soil fertilily? (ii) What are the different stages of nodule formation? (iii) Why Pinus can not grow in any type of soil?

BOTANY — HONOURS Paper : DSE-B-1 (Plant Biotechnology)

Answer the following questions (2 marks):

a) Name two chemicals used for surface sterilization of explants for in vitro culture. (b) What is cytodifferentiation?

 (c) What do you mean by ‘Super bug’?

(d) What is edible vaccine?

(e) Define cellular totipotency.

(f) What is T-DNA?

(g) Define fusogen with an example.

(h) State two names of transgenic plants

Answer the following questions (5-10 marks):

 (a) Briefly discuss the method of isolation of protoplast.

 (b) Briefly discuss the Ti Plasmid.

 (c) Write a short note on Bt cotton.

 (d) What is callus culture? State its application.

 (e) With a suitable flow chart enumerate anther culture method. Explain its application.

f) Write short notes : (i) Reporter gene (ii) Artificial seed (iii) De-differentiation (iv) Suspension culture.

(g) Briefly discuss the steps of T-DNA transfer process from Agrobacterium tumifaciens cell to plant cell.

 (h) Starting from an explant give an outline of different steps involved to raise a plant in vitro. State the essential components of any plant tissue culture medium.

(i) Distinguish between direct and indirect organogenesis. Define rhizogenesis. What is somatic embryo?








BOTANY — HONOURS Paper : DSE-B-2 (Horticultural Practices and Post Harvest Technology)


Answer the following questions (2 marks):

 (a) What is peri urban horticulture? Name two different branches of horticulture. (b) Where did the art of Bonsai originate from? Name two Bonsai styles. 2

(c) What is hydroponic system? Mention the ideal temperature in hydroponic system.

(d) Mention the significance of crop sanitation.

 (e) Write the scientific names of gulmohor and coral tree.

 (f) Write the scientific names of two common insect pests of brinjal.

 (g) What is germplasm conservation? Distinguish between a variety and a cultivar.  (h) What are the horticultural varieties of mango in West Bengal?.

 Answer any two of the following :

 (a) Mention the principles of food preservation and advantages of food irradiation in post harvest technology.

(b) Describe with example the role of tissue culture in conservation and maintenance of elite horticultural crops.

(c) Write a note on importance of flower exhibitions in the society (horticulture).

(d) Throw light on Integrated Pest Management of vegetable crops of India. Enumerate some post harvest diseases of ornamental fruit crops

e) Write the salient features to identify the following plants (i) Rose (iv) Succulents (ii) Gladiolus (v) Orchids. (iii) Gerberas Please

 (f) What do you mean by landscape gardening? Describe the principles of landscape designing.

(g) (i) What are the methods followed during storage and transportation of vegetables and fruits? (ii) What is IPR? Discuss the IPR issues in trade and commerce of horticultural crops.

(h) What is urban eco-tourism? How will you prefer it over natural eco-tourism? What is





3rd SEM


Answer the following questions (2 marks):

a) Which rock type is most suitable for preservation of fossils?

(b) What are chemical fossils? Give an example.

(c) Which geological period is called the ‘Age of Ferns’?

(d) State the chemical nature of sporopollenin

e) Mention the reasons behind Edward’s renaming of Rhynia major.

 (f) What is hydrasperman reproduction?

(g) Distinguish between spores and pollen grains.

(h) Name the form genera of the root and leaf of Lepidodendron.

i) Define index fossil. Give an example.

j) What is duripartic preservation? Give an example.

k) What is coal ball? State its significance.

l ) Distinguish between epidogenesis and apoxogenesis.

m) What is parichnos scar? Where do you find it?

n) Distinguish between colpus and sulcus.

o) What is Artisia?

p) Why is pollen a good forensic tool?.

q)What is Aeropalynology?

r) Which rock type is most suitable for preservation of fossils?

s) What are chemical fossils? Give an example.

t) Which geological period is called the ‘Age of Ferns’?

u) State the chemical nature of sporopollenin.


Answer the following questions (5-10marks):

 a) Give an account of the factors controlling the processes of fossilization.

b) Comment on the female gametophyte of Lepidodendron.

c) What is Melissopalynology? How can it combat fraud and inaccurate labelling of honey?

d) Write a short note on the principle of radiometric dating of rocks  fossils.

e) Explain with examples how fossil plants are reconstructed and named

f)Name the different organ genera of the reconstructed plant Williamsonia

g) Give an account of the adaptive evolutionary modifications of early vascular land plant Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii

h)Give an illustrated account of the major aperture types found in pollen grains.

i)Schematically represent NPC classification as proposed by Erdtman.

j) Schematically represent the different Eras and Periods of standard geological time scale, highlighting the major floral events

k) Comment on the gametophyte of Rhynia

l) Write a brief note on the role of Aeropalynology on human health.

m)Give an outline of the three-fold subdivisions of Indian Gondwana. n)Mention at least five characteristic megafossil genera from the respective subdivisions.

0)Describe the modes of cellular permineralisation and authigenic preservation of fossils mentioning one example from each type.

p) Characterise the stem anatomy and fructifications of the reconstructed plant Calamites with suitable illustrations.

q) State the geological age of the reconstructed plant Cordaites.

r)Give an account of sporoderm stratification as proposed by Erdtman and Faegri with labelled sketches.

 s)Draw the different exine ornamentation patterns found in spores and pollen grains.

t)Mention the reasons behind Edward’s renaming of Rhynia major

u) Describe its leaf anatomy and female fructifications of lepidodendron with labelled sketches.


Answer the following questions (2 marks):

 (a) What is perisperm? Give an example

(b) What is a compound spadix inflorescence?

(c) Define schizocarpic fruit. Give an example.

 (d) Define aggregate fruit. 

(e) What is hypocrateriform corolla? Give an example

 (f) What is apogamy?

 (g) How a spike differs from a raceme inflorescence?


h) How spadix inflorescence differs from catkin inflorescence?

i) Give an example of hemicyclic flower. 

j) What is accrescent calyx? Give an example.

k) What is cremocarp?

l) What is synergid?

m) What is tetrasporic type of embryo sac development 

n) What do you mean by helobial type of endosperm development

0)What is cymose inflorescence?

p)Define double fertilization

q)What is megasporogenesis?

r)What is pseudocarp?


a)Write a short note on apomixis in angiosperms.

(b) Distinguish between cyathium and hypanthodium inflorescences with one example each.

(c) With suitable examples describe different fleshy indehiscent fruits.

 (d) Describe different types of pollen tube entry into ovule with examples.

e) Describe different types of cymose inflorescences.

f). Describe d